A Newly Launched Superb Social Networking Site-Google+


FIVE THINGS WHY I LIKE GOOGLE+ MORE THAN FACEBOOK
1. One can take his/her information with him/her if he/she wants to leave googles+.i.e If I am quiting GOOGLE+ then i can save memories of all good messages and chats that i had done with my friends and others in the past.

2.It has integrated video conferencing where you and your friend can watch a same online video at a time. That’s really nice.

3.Information can be easily shared by the cicle concept.

4.Your personaly information is safe unlike facebook which co-owns anything I put on the site. You can have the copyright and any other rights on the Content which you post or display on or through the Services.

5.Sparks which is far far better then “like” of facebook. In Facebook suppose if I like any story, but do I really need a message every day from that story. No, not at all.

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‘Nanowire’ Measurements Could Improve Computer Memory


A recent study at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) may have revealed the optimal characteristics for a new type of computer memory now under development……….The work aims to optimize nanowire-based charge-trapping memory devices, potentially illuminating the path to creating portable computers and cell phones that can operate for days between charging sessions…………

 

In this schematic image (top) and transmission electron micrograph, a silicon nanowire is shown surrounded by a stack of thin layers of material called dielectrics, which store electrical charge. NIST scientists determined the best arrangement for this dielectric stack for the optimal construction of silicon nanowire-based memory devices

The nascent technology is based on silicon formed into tiny wires, approximately 20 nanometers in diameter. These “nanowires” form the basis of memory that is non-volatile, holding its contents even while the power is off — just like the flash memory in USB thumb drives and many mp3 players. Such nanowire devices are being studied extensively as the possible basis for next-generation computer memory because they hold the promise to store information faster and at lower voltage.

Nanowire memory devices also hold an additional advantage over flash memory, which despite its uses is unsuitable for one of the most crucial memory banks in a computer: the local cache memory in the central processor.

“Cache memory stores the information a microprocessor is using for the task immediately at hand,” says NIST physicist Curt Richter. “It has to operate very quickly, and flash memory just isn’t fast enough. If we can find a fast, non-volatile form of memory to replace what chips currently use as cache memory, computing devices could gain even more freedom from power outlets — and we think we’v  found the best way to help silicon nanowires do the job.”

While the research team is by no means the only lab group in the world working on nanowires, they took advantage of NIST’s talents at measurement to determine the best way to design charge-trapping memory devices based on nanowires, which must be surrounded by thin layers of material called dielectrics that store electrical charge. By using a combination of software modeling and electrical device characterization, the NIST and GMU team explored a wide range of structures for the dielectrics. Based on the understanding they gained, Richter says, an optimal device can be designed

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IBM shows smallest, fastest graphene processor


IBM on Thursday demonstrated its fastest graphene transistor, which can execute 155 billion cycles per second, which is about 50% faster than previous experimental transistors shown by the company’s researchers. The transistor has a cut-off frequency of 155GHz, making it faster and more capable than the 100GHz graphene transistor shown by IBM in February last year, said Yu-Ming Lin, an IBM researcher. The research also shows that high-performance, graphene-based transistors can be produced at low cost using standard semiconductor manufacturing processes, Lin said. That could pave the way for commercial production of graphene chips, though Lin could not say when manufacturing of such chips would begin. Commercialized graphene transistors will provide a performance boost in applications related to wireless communications, networking, radar and imaging, said Phaedon Avouris, an IBM fellow. Graphene is a single-atom-thick layer of carbon atoms structured in a hexagonal honeycomb form. The transistor was developed as part of research IBM is conducting for the U.S. Department of Defense’s DARPA (Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency) program to develop high-performance RF (radio frequency) transistors. Avouris said the military has considerable interest in graphene transistors. The flow of electrons is faster on graphene transistors than conventional transistors, which enables faster data transfers between chips, Lin said. That makes it promising technology for applications such as networking that require communications at fast speeds and high frequencies. Graphene transistors may be able compute faster than conventional transistors, but are not ideal for PCs yet, Lin said. Because of the lack of energy gap in natural graphene, graphene transistors do not possess the on-off ratio required for digital switching operations, which makes conventional processors better at processing discrete digital signals. By contrast, the continuous energy flow makes graphene better at processing analog signals, Lin said. Graphene’s high electron speed allows for faster processing of applications in analog electronics where such a high on-off ratio is not needed. The graphene transistor benefited from the use of a new and improved substrate IBM called “diamond-like carbon.” The graphene transistor exhibited excellent temperature stability from room temperature down to minus 268 degrees Celsius, which the company called “helium temperature.” “The performance of these graphene devices exhibited excellent temperature stability … a behavior that largely benefited from the use of a novel substrate of diamond-like carbon,” IBM said.

The graphene transistor is also IBM’s smallest transistor to date, researchers said. The gate length of the radio-frequency graphene transistor was scaled down from 550 nanometers to 40 nanometers, compared to the gate length of 240 nanometers for the graphene transistor shown last year, which used a silicon carbide substrate.

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How Vacuum tube works in 1st Generatain Computers


Topics Which Are Covered Here Are

1. Vacuum Tube And Its Working

2. Working Of Grid

3. How  The Vacuum Tube  Work As An Switching Device

Vacuum Tube

Figure 1

Vacuum Tube And Its Working

All vacuum tube are made on the concept of Audion.
**The Audion is an electronic amplifying vacuum tube. It was the forerunner of the triode, in which the current from the filament to the plate was controlled by a third element, the grid. A small amount of power applied to the grid could control a larger current from the filament to the plate, allowing the Audion both to detect radio signals (that is, make them audible) and to provide amplification. However, Audion is quite distinct from the true vacuum triode in that it is not capable of linear amplification.

Electrons are emitted from cathod and passed through a grid or many grids. This grid controls the electron current. Electron then strike the anode and absorbed by it. Disigning the cathod, grid and the tube will make the AC signal voltage into a larger AC voltage, hence amplifying it.
**Todays transistor makes use of electric field in crystal.

 
Figure shows a typical modern vacuum tube. It is a glass bulb with wires passing through its bottom, and connecting to the various electrodes inside. Before the bulb is sealed, a powerful vacuum pump sucks all the air and gases out. This requires special pumps which can make very “hard” vacuums. To make a good tube, the pump must make a vacuum with no more than a millionth of the air pressure at sea level (one microTorr, in official technical jargon). The “harder” the vacuum, the better the tube will work and the longer it will last. Making an extremely hard vacuum in a tube is a lengthy process, so most modern tubes compromise at a level of vacuum that is adequate for the tube’s application.

Working Of GRIDS

Figure @

Grid Figure

The control grid is a piece of plated wire, wound around two soft-metal posts. In small tubes the plating is usually gold, and there are two posts made of soft copper. Grids in big power tubes are made up of tungsten or molybdenum wire welded into a basket form to absorbe heat. Some large power tubes use basket-shaped grids made of graphite.

Theis is an another term secondary emission,which is always avoided. This is caused by electrons striking a smooth metal surface. If many secondary electrons come out of the grid, it will lose control of the electron stream, so that the current “runs away”, and the tube destroys itself. So, the grid is often plated with a metal that is less prone to secondary emission, such as gold. Special surface finishing is also used to help prevent secondary emission.

Now The Question Arises, How The Vacuum Tube Helps In Computers?

 Actually the magnification given by the grid to the voltage helps in switching on or off, which in turns creates that test tube as an virtual switching divece.

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Extremely Fast Magnetic Random Access Memory (MRAM) Computer Data Storage


Magnetic random access memory (MRAM) is the most important new module on the market of computer storage devices. Like the well known USB sticks, they store information into static memory, but MRAM offers short access times and unlimited writing properties. Commercial MRAMs have been on the market since 2005. They are, however, still slower than the competitors they have among the volatile storage media.

Electron-microscopic recording of an MRAM storage cell

An invention made by the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB) changes this situation: A special chip connection, in association with dynamic triggering of the component, reduces the response from — so far — 2 ns to below 500 ps. This corresponds to a data rate of up to 2 GBit (instead of the approx. 400 MBit so far). Power consumption and the thermal load will be reduced, as well as the bit error rate. The European patent is just being granted this spring; the US patent was already granted in 2010. An industrial partner for further development and manufacturing such MRAMs under licence is still being searched for.

Fast computer storage chips like DRAM and SRAM (Dynamic and Static Random Access Memory) which are commonly used today, have one decisive disadvantage: in the case of an interruption of the power supply, the information stored on them is irrevocably lost. The MRAM promises to put an end to this. In the MRAM, the digital information is not stored in the form of an electric charge, but via the magnetic alignment of storage cells (magnetic spins). MRAMs are very universal storage chips because they allow — in addition to the non-volatile information storage — also faster access, a high integration density and an unlimited number of writing and reading cycles.

However, the current MRAM models are not yet fast enough to outperform the best competitors. The time for programming a magnetic bit amounts to approx. 2 ns. Whoever wants to speed this up, reaches certain limits which have something to do with the fundamental physical properties of magnetic storage cells: during the programming process, not only the desired storage cell is magnetically excited, but also a large number of other cells. These excitations — the so-called magnetic ringing — are only slightly attenuated, their decay can take up to approx. 2 ns, and during this time, no other cell of the MRAM chip can be programmed. As a result, the maximum clock rate of MRAM is, so far, limited to approx. 400 MHz.

Until now, all experiments made to increase the velocity have led to intolerable write errors. Now, PTB scientists have optimized the MRAM design and integrated the so-called ballistic bit triggering which has also been developed at PTB. Here, the magnetic pulses which serve for the programming are selected in such a skilful way that the other cells in the MRAM are hardly magnetically excited at all. The pulse ensures that the magnetization of a cell which is to be switched performs half a precision rotation (180°), while a cell whose storage state is to remain unchanged performs a complete precision rotation (360°). In both cases, the magnetization is in the state of equilibrium after the magnetic pulse has decayed, and magnetic excitations do not occur any more.

This optimal bit triggering also works with ultra-short switching pulses with a duration below 500 ps. The maximum clock rates of the MRAM are, therefore, above 2 GHz. In addition, several bits can be programmed at the same time which would allow the effective write rate per bit to be increased again by more than one order. This invention allows clock rates to be achieved with MRAM which can compete with those of the fastest volatile storage components

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Microsoft Techfest shows near and distant future


 

Microsoft Research showed off a slice of Techfest on Tuesday, a science fair on steroids showcasing what the company’s hive of scientists are developing.

The projects ranged from developments a few years out to work that’s on the bleeding edge — 3-D animated talking heads and a 3-D display showing different broadcasts to two people looking at the same screen.

Tuesday’s show focused on natural user interface, now seen in the Xbox Kinect motion sensor, and predictive computing — software that anticipates what you want and does it for you.

Microsoft showed some of the work Tuesday to a few hundred partners and customers, about 10 percent of what it will show to Microsoft this week.

Techfest will showcase 150 projects, and the company expects 5,000 to 7,000 workers to attend.

It’s part show and tell for the researchers to see if product developers might be interested in adding the conceptual technology to future products.

Microsoft spends more than $9 billion a year on research and development, more than the total federal funding for the National Science Foundation last year.

Researchers hope Techfest will stimulate the creative juices at Microsoft and spread the seeds of broad concepts shown at the event.

“One form of tech transfer is when the developer says, ‘I want this,’ ” said Peter Lee, managing director of Microsoft Research Redmond.

“The other part of technology transfer is [product] developers thinking about what does natural-user interface mean? What does computer interaction mean? How does a system get smarter?”

Building on the success of Kinect, a motion sensor that has mushroomed into a multibillion-dollar business since November, Microsoft showed off several projects using 3-D interaction.

Here are some examples:

3-D talking head. Software can animate a 3-D photo of a person based on 2-D video of the person talking. It was able to make the image speak, get angry and look surprised or fearful. The image had no hair — researchers are still wrestling with how to imitate real hair. This could be the next form of Avatar Kinect, the Kinect feature coming that lets your Xbox Avatar — a cartoon version of a player — interact with other players’ avatars via Xbox Live.

MirageBlock. The software, combined with a 3-D projector and a Kinect camera, captures an object image and projects it in 3-D on ordinary poster board. People can move the virtual object around with their hands.

Virtual Window. The Applied Sciences Group showed a few pieces of 3-D display technology the team hopes to combine into a virtual window between two people in different parts of the globe seeing and interacting with each other through a display screen. One piece was a flat lens called a wedge optic that was both a camera and a display.

Another was a glasses-free 3-D display screen combined with a Kinect sensor to track eye movement.

Another piece was a single screen that could broadcast two different images to people sitting side by side.

The ability of software to predict what you want was also a common theme to Techfest. Lee called it “COYB” or “computing on your behalf.”

Here are some examples of predictive computing Microsoft showed:

Automatic home heating. In one demo, Microsoft showed a thermostat and software that automatically turn on your home’s heating system before you get home, based on a history of the time you leave and return home each day. The sensors keep track of comings and goings with a keychain sensor.

ShadowDraw. A sketching application could make amateur drawers better artists by offering recommendations for future drawing strokes based on what the sketcher starts to draw. It offers suggestions for eyes, for instance, if you begin drawing the outline of a face.

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ISO finalizes C++ update


C++ 2011, in development for eight years, may be released by year’s end

The widely used C++ programming language is about to be updated, as the ISO steering committee for the language has approved the final draft specifying its next version.

The ISO/IEC Information Technology Task Force (ITTF) will review the steering committee’s Final Draft International Standard (FDIS) will review and, barring any complications, publish the draft later this year. It will be known as C++ 2011.

“Perhaps the most heartening thing to me is that this standard is widely considered among committee old-timers as the highest-quality FDIS document we have shipped,” wrote Herb Sutter, Microsoft architect and chair of the ISO C++ standards committee, in a blog post.

Computer scientist Bjarne Stroustrup first created C++ in 1979 as an extension to the C programming language, one that supports classes, or blueprints, for creating run-time objects. Although sometimes derided for its complexity, C++ appears to be the third most popular programming language in use today, trailing only Java and C, according to the most recent Tiobe survey of programming languages.

“C++0x feels like a new language: The pieces just fit together better than they used to and I find a higher-level style of programming more natural than before and as efficient as ever,” wrote Stroustrup in a FAQ describing the update.

Sutter noted that the features of the draft standard, code-named C++0x, have already been added into working compilers as library extensions. Microsoft’s Visual Studio and the Free Software Foundation’s open source GCC (GNU Compiler Collection) both support some features

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